February 26, 2013 by Water Wisdom
By GARDINER HARRIS February 21, 2013
NEW DELHI – Britain’s prime minister laid a wreath at the site of a notorious 1919 massacre that cost the lives of hundreds of Indians and has long been seen as one of the British Empire’s most shameful episodes.
David Cameron was the first serving prime minister to voice regret about the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar, although Queen Elizabeth made a similar appearance in 1997 that at the time caused an outpouring of pained reflections about India’s colonial history under Britain. Mr. Cameron’s trip, perhaps because it is his third one here or because Britain’s role in India has become relatively less important, has caused far less comment and consternation.
戴维·卡梅伦(David Cameron)是首位对发生在阿姆利则的夏利玛公园惨案(Jallianwala Bagh)表示哀悼的在任首相，尽管伊丽莎白女王(Queen Elizabeth)在1997年做过同样的事情，当时还引发了大量对英国殖民统治印度的历史的痛苦反思。卡梅伦此次到访引发的评论和骚动远不如女王的那次到访，或许是因为这已是他第三次访问印度，又或是因为英国在印度的地位已不如以往重要。
“This was a deeply shameful event in British history – one that Winston Churchill rightly described at that time as monstrous,” Mr. Cameron wrote in the visitor’s notebook at the pink granite memorial.
Like the queen before him, Mr. Cameron did not offer a full apology, a fact that was duly noted by Indian media. Britain’s colonial history is so replete with regrettable episodes that officials have quietly worried that an apology for one episode might lead to an outpouring of demands for similar apologies all over the world.
In 1919, Brig. Reginald Dyer, a British officer administering martial law, ordered 50 soldiers to open fire on a crowd of about 10,000 unarmed Indians protesting a postwar extension of World War 1 detention laws. A British inquiry concluded that 379 people were killed and 1,100 wounded, but an Indian inquiry estimated that 1,000 died.
Fortunately for Mr. Cameron, Prince Philip was not on this trip. When Queen Elizabeth visited the Amritsar memorial in 1997, the queen’s royal consort was overheard griping that the memorial’s official signage “vastly exaggerated” the death toll, a fact that he said he had learned from Brigadier Dyer’s son when the two men were cadets in the Royal Navy before World War II.
对于卡梅伦来说，幸运的是菲利普亲王(Prince Philip)并未一同前来。1997年，伊丽莎白女王参观阿姆利则纪念馆时，有人听到菲利普亲王抱怨纪念馆的官方标识“大幅度夸大了”死亡人数。据他说，他是从戴尔准将的儿子那里了解到这一点的，当时还是在二战之前，两个小伙子都在皇家海军(Royal Navy)受训。
The nearly sacrilegious remark touched off a storm of commentary, little of it beneficial to the visitors. The Amritsar massacre is seen by many Indian historians as a crucial moment in the country’s struggle for independence.
Mr. Cameron’s trip is intended to bolster the two countries’ business and trade ties and perhaps strengthen his support among 1.5 million British voters of Indian descent. On Tuesday, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh asked for Mr. Cameron’s assistance in the increasingly embarrassing bribery investigation into India’s purchase of 12 AgustaWestland helicopters made at a plant in Britain.
AgustaWestland’s parent company, Finmeccanica, is based in Italy, and the company’s chairman and chief executive, Giuseppe Orsi, was arrested recently on corruption and fraud charges after investigators charged that Finmeccanica had engaged in an elaborate scheme to bribe Indian generals to win the contract, charges that at least one of the top generals has firmly denied. The case has become a black eye for Mr. Singh’s governing coalition.
While stressing that Finmeccanica is “an Italian company,” Mr. Cameron promised to “respond to any request for information.”
Hari Kumar contributed reporting.